Les enfants qui apprennent une langue seconde dans les écoles anglaises du Québec sont de deux sortes : ceux dont la langue maternelle n’est pas l’anglais (English Language Learners -ELL), et ceux dont la langue maternelle n’est pas le français (français langue seconde - FLS). Voici des outils et ds ressources pour vous aider dans cette tâche et dans le processus d'évaluation.
Étapes de l'apprentissage de l'anglais langue seconde au préscolaire
Comment les jeunes non-anglophones apprennent-ils l’anglais au cours de l’année? De courtes vidéos illustrent le processus en 5 étapes. De l’information pratique concernant le rôle de l’enseignant-e, les stratégies gagnantes ainsi que des livres et chansons pour soutenir l’apprentissage sont aussi offertes. Ces étapes sont les mêmes quelle que soit la langue seconde apprise.
En 2009-2010, le Kindergarten Provincial Committee (KPC) s’est dit interpelé par le fait que bien des enseignant-e-s du préscolaire en situation d’immersion ou de programmes bilingues se retrouvent à enseigner l’anglais à des non-anglophones, et ce, en contexte de langue maternelle. Ces enseignants ont peu ou pas d’expertise dans l’enseignement d’une langue seconde. C’est pour les soutenir dans cette tâche que cette ressource a été créée.
Le KPC est constitué d’enseignantes et de conseillères pédagogiques représentant chacune des 9 commissions scolaires anglophones ainsi que des représentantes du MEES, QAIS, des universités et de LEARN.
Étant donné la clientèle visée, cette ressource est en anglais.
At this phase of development, children arrive in our classrooms with no English comprehension or oral communication skills. They are completely dependent on their mother tongue. These are children who may have immigrated to Quebec from another country or come from a French speaking household.
The "Silent Period"
It is not uncommon for children who are in this phase of development to refrain from speaking. This stage is sometimes referred to as the “silent period” (1). During this silent period, children are listening, observing and accumulating knowledge of the English language. It is important to note that this silent period can last anywhere from a few weeks to a few months. Children will begin to speak English when they are ready.
Children at this phase of development will often use gestures to communicate; they will imitate others, and will constantly use their mother tongue (L1) to interact in their learning environment.
At this phase of development for English language learners, comprehension is beginning to emerge. The children will understand simple and familiar phrases that have been learned through their daily routine, i.e. “Go get your snack, come and sit”. Their vocabulary is still very limited. They may produce one or two word sentences.
What will I see?
They often use words they have become familiar with because they were exposed to them over the last few weeks, i.e. “Bathroom please, good morning, yes, no”. They may begin to imitate phrases they have heard used by their fellow classmates, “Mine, my turn”.
They speak more during small and large group activities (e.g. songs, poems, and story time) but their comprehension is still limited. They are still very dependent on their mother tongue to communicate. They may understand a simple question in English, but will respond in their mother tongue.
In this phase of development, children have acquired good comprehension of the English language. They are able to understand simple conversations. They will move from memorized sentences that are linked to specific contexts to original productions of speech. However, they still have a limited vocabulary and will make many errors. The sentences they use are complete but remain simple. They will begin to use connectors (and, but, because). There is still a lack of fluidity in their speech. Trying to formulate what they want to say will result in long pauses.
What will I see?
They will begin to communicate with their peers in English but will revert to their L1 if they cannot express their needs.
Children begin to express their likes, dislikes and interests more readily while in their learning environment. They also participate more readily in classroom activities that involve oral communication
During the stage of development, children have good English comprehension. They can follow conversations and engage in discussions using English. When speaking in English, they use complete simple sentences. They may still make errors in grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. They may omit some words and may refer back to their mother tongue (L1) when they are not sure as to how to say something.
What will I see?
Children can be observed using English more readily when playing with peers.
What is new?
At this phase of development, children are beginning to be more creative in the speech patterns they produce. They are less dependent on the familiar phrases they have been using over the last few months. They are creating their own messages for everyday purposes such as: “ You want to go play there?”, “ My zipper is stuck”. They are more fluent when communicating in English and although they may still pause while formulating a sentence, the pauses are less frequent.
At this phase of development, children have excellent comprehension and their vocabulary is varied and rich. They can communicate using complete sentences that clearly describe something, express an idea or opinion. They are also less dependent on their mother tongue (L1).
What will I see?
They engage in English dialogue more consistently in their social interactions. They rarely revert back to L1. Their English closely resembles that of a mother tongue speaker.
What is new?
They can start, sustain, close and extend a conversation.
When speaking in English, the children’s speech is more fluid, there are fewer pauses and at times the child will self correct.
Complete this information with the following print documents:
- Strategies, books and songs related to the phases of development
- Transcript of the FAQ audio clips
- Question 1
Should we speak to a child using their mother tongue when we are trying to teach them a second language?
- Question 2
How do you use the classroom environment and routines to support second language development?
- Question 3
How do you assess and evaluate children’s progress with reference to the other competencies if they have limited language capabilities?
- Question 4
How long does it take a child to learn English?
- Question 1
Author: Kim McGrath, Preschool Educator and MELS Consultant
Review: Christiane Bourdages-Simpson, MELS
Editing, Media Production and Web design: Christiane Dufour, LEARN
A special thanks to Kindergarten teacher Anne Provencher and her students at Riverside School Board, Québec.
- Continuum du développement d’une langue seconde
Une grille qui met en lien les critères d'évaluation de la compétence langagière et les phases d'acquisition du FLS
- Le profil de développement en maternelle
Compétence 4 – la compétence langagière (Inclus des éléments pour la langue seconde)
- Communication écrite aux parents : progrès en langue seconde
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You may also want to consult
Supporting English Language Learners in Kindergarten. A practical guide for Ontario educators
A practical and inclusive approach, looking at second language learning when the learners can include children of varied cultures and languages. Highlights It looks at the environment to create so all can thrive and grow.
One child, two languages: A guide for pre-school educators of children learning English as a second language.
This highly readable book moves beyond the basics of child development to describe the natural progression of second-language acquisition in young children. Highlights Written expressly for teachers and offers specific techniques to facilitate second-language acquisition
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